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How systemic comorbidities may affect conversion from OHT to OAG

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Investigators' data showed that overweight/obesity, migraine, asthma, and smoking are major risk factors for conversion from ocular hypertension to open-angle glaucoma in this Spanish and Portuguese population.

Investigators reported that overweight/obesity, migraine, asthma, and smoking may be major risk factors for ocular hypertension (OHT) conversion to open-angle glaucoma (OAG) in their analysis of a Spanish and Portuguese population.

Lead authors Caroline Garcia-Villanueva, MD, from the Ophthalmic Research Unit Santiago Grisolia, Foundation for Research in Health and Biomedicine, the Cellular and Molecular Ophthalmobiology Group, Surgery Department, Faculty of Medicine and Odontology, University of Valencia, and the Department of Ophthalmology, University General Hospital, Valencia, Spain, and Elena Milla, MD, fromthe Department of Ophthalmology, Clinic Hospital, Barcelona, Spain, and the Spanish Net of Ophthalmic Pathology OFTARED, Institute of Health Carlos III, Madrid, reported their findings in the Journal of Clinical Medicine.1

They explained that many unanswered questions remain about the course of OAG, the most prevalent type of glaucoma and if nutritional or toxic habits, personal characteristics, and/or systemic diseases affect the disease course.

To answer this, the investigators undertook a multicenter analytical, observational, case–control study that included 412 participants (age range, 40–80 years) who had OHT or OAG. The primary endpoint was to determine an association between specific lifestyle habits; anthropometric and endocrine–metabolic, cardiovascular, and respiratory events; and commonly used psychochemicals, in these Spanish and Portuguese patients.

The researchers collected and analyzed demographic, epidemiologic, and ocular/systemic clinical data from all patients. The mean patient age was 62 ± 15 years, and the majority ranged in age from 67 to 80 years.

Data analysis showed that the central corneal thickness-adjusted intraocular pressures in each eye were 20.46 ± 2.35 and 20.1 ± 2.73 mmHg for patients with OHT and 15.8 ± 3.83 and 16.94 ± 3.86 mmHg for those with OAG. The comparisons reached significance (p = 0.001).

“The highest prevalence rates of the surveyed characteristics in both groups were for overweight/obesity and daily coffee consumption followed by psychochemical drug intake, migraine, and peripheral vasospasm. Our data showed that overweight/obesity, migraine, asthma, and smoking are major risk factors for conversion from OHT to OAG in this Spanish and Portuguese population,” the investigators reported.

They concluded, “In this Spanish and Portuguese cohort, we identified some non-ocular-specific factors to help assess the risk of OAG and to prevent or delay glaucomatous optic nerve degeneration and blindness. Based on the results of this study, we strongly recommend careful and considered care for the people suffering from these disorders to prevent subsequent visual disability and loss of quality of life.”

Reference
  1. Garcia-Villanueva C, Milla E, Bolarin JM, et al. Impact of systemic comorbidities on ocular hypertension and open-angle glaucoma, in a population from Spain and Portugal. J Clin Med. 2022;11:5649; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm11195649

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