ARVO 2007

May 11, 2007

All the news from the meeting of the Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology, held May 6–10 2007 in Fort Lauderdale, Florida, US.

All the news from the meeting of the Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology, held May 6–10 2007 in Fort Lauderdale, Florida, US.

Please click on any of the headlines below to read the full story.

 

Disclaimer:This information has been independently developed and provided by the editors of Ophthalmology Times Europe.

The sponsors do not endorse and are not responsible for the accuracy of the content or for practices or standards of non-sponsor sources.

These articles may discuss regimens that have not been approved by the appropriate regulatory bodies. For full prescribing information including indications, contraindications, warnings, precautions, and adverse experiences please see the appropriate manufacturer's product circular.

 

Nepafenac penetrates most quickly in NSAIDs studyIn a head-to-head comparison of market-leading nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) used to treat pain and inflammation in cataract surgery, nepafenac 0.1% (Nevanac, Alcon Laboratories) had significantly greater ocular bioavailability than either ketorolac 0.4% (Acular LS, Allergan) or bromfenac 0.09% (Xibrom, ISTA Pharmaceuticals), according to Thomas R. Walters, MD. 

Bromfenac reduces severity, frequency of corneal discomfortAverage anesthetic response to bromfenac, ketorolac drop not significantly different, however. 

Changes in RGC axon survival measured in microbead rat modelAdapted model would allow elevations in IOP to be induced, sustained by injections of latex beads. 

Fusion-protein anti-VEGF agent well tolerated for wet AMD; clinical improvements seem durableAppears to produce increase in BCVA and reduction in retinal thickness, without ocular inflammation. 

Preclinical study compares fluoroquinolonesGatifloxacin found to reduce bacterial growth faster than moxifloxacin, but both are effective. 

Pegaptanib a success as AMD maintenance therapyAn interim analysis shows that patients with age-related macular degeneration (AMD) who have undergone 18 to 24 weeks of maintenance therapy with pegaptanib sodium injection (Macugen, OSI Eyetech/Pfizer) have retained visual gains achieved during earlier treatment with other agents, according to Thomas R. Friberg, MD. 

Topical azithromycin effective in P aeruginosa keratitisTreatment with topical azithromycin 1% ophthalmic solution (AzaSite, InSite Vision) using a frequent dosing regimen was effective in reducing colony counts of azithromycin-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa in an animal model of keratitis. 

Optical coherence tomography: cellular and functional retinal imagingWolfgang Drexler, PhD, was instrumental in the development of optical coherence tomography (OCT) and has contributed significantly to advances such as ultra high-resolution OCT… 

Bevacizumab tested in treatment of severe ROPIn a small case series, all eyes in infants treated with bevacizumab (Avastin, Genentech) for retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) showed a decrease in fluorescein leakage from neovascularization after the injection. 

Mucins: integral components of the ocular surface systemIlene Gipson, PhD, received the Friedenwald Award for her seminal contributions to basic and clinical understanding of wound healing, epithelial anchorage, and mucin biology in the areas of ocular surface and cornea research. 

Efficacy and safety of corticosteroid implants for DME an active area of researchThe central role of blood-retinal-barrier breakdown in the development of diabetic macular edema provides a rationale for exploring the use of corticosteroids as a treatment option, said Glen J. Jaffe, MD, professor of ophthalmology, Duke University Eye Center, Durham, NC. 

Latex bead injection model useful for studying retinal ganglion cell lossA new model for latex bead injections demonstrates that this is a viable approach to increasing IOP and inducing loss of retinal ganglion cells in rats, said Rebecca M. Sappington, PhD, research fellow, Vanderbilt University, Vanderbilt Eye Institute, Nashville. 

Bioptic telescope aids drivers with AMDDrivers with age-related macular degeneration (AMD) who used a small, spectacle-mounted bioptic telescope reported fewer self-imposed driving restrictions when compared with drivers with AMD who did not use the telescope. 

MEPEDS: Older children more likely to develop strabismus, amblyopiaThere is no difference in the prevalence of amblyopia and strabismus in a population of Hispanic and African-American preschool children and the prevalence of the two pathologies increases with age, according to Rohit Varma, MD, MPH, from the University of Southern California, Keck School of Medicine, Los Angeles. 

Bevacizumab rescue therapy after pegaptanib: minimal visual acuity improvementBevacizumab rescue therapy administered following treatment with pegaptanib (Macugen, OSI/Eyetech, Pfizer Ophthalmics) resulted in minimal improvement, said William Freeman, MD, from the Department of Ophthalmology, Shiley Eye Center, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, CA. 

ANCHOR study of time course of visual acuity changes: ranibizumab benefit stable over 2 yearsAnalysis of the time course of visual acuity outcomes during the first year of the ANCHOR study indicates that the mean visual acuity benefit of ranibizumab (Lucentis, Novartis) compared with photodynamic therapy (PDT) with verteporfin (Visudyne, Novartis) was observed after the first month of treatment, but that even patients who did not show this early benefit might respond later in the treatment course, said Jeffrey Heier, MD, Ophthalmic Consultants of Boston. 

Evolution in understanding of DME suggest new targets, treatment paradigmsWhile there are extensive data supporting the concept that anti-VEGF agents may have a role in the treatment of diabetic macular oedema (DME), emerging knowledge about DME pathogenesis is suggesting alternate therapeutic targets and new paradigms for multidrug treatment, said Lloyd P. Aiello, MD, PhD, director, Beetham Eye Institute, Joslin Diabetes Center, Boston. 

New surgical approach under investigation for chronic cystoid DMEVitrectomy with drainage of cystoid spaces is being evaluated as a new surgical treatment for patients with chronic cystoid diabetic macular oedema (DME) who are unresponsive to other interventions and who have minimal or no leakage on fluorescein angiography and good foveal capillary perfusion, said Hilel Lewis, MD, director, Cole Eye Institute, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, OH. 

Pegaptanib sodium shows promise in treatment of CRVOTreatment of macular edema secondary to central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO) with pegaptanib sodium (Macugen, OSI/Eyetech, Pfizer Ophthalmics) was associated with improved visual acuity in a comparison with patients receiving sham injections. 

Night-driving simulator may influence future IOL safety testsIn a night-driving simulation, fog and glare separately reduced sign recognition distances but when combined paradoxically increased performance relative to either factor alone. However, fog and glare reduced object recognition both separately and when paired, said Bruce A. Drum, PhD, Division of Ophthalmic and ENT Devices, FDA, Rockville, MD. 

Discovery of a new signaling pathway that regulates IOPResearchers have discovered elevated expression of sFRP1 (secreted frizzled related protein), a WNT signaling inhibitor, in glaucomatous trabecular meshwork (TM) cells. They also observed that the TM has a functional signaling pathway in which elevated sFRP1 decreased outflow facility, according to one researcher. 

Imaging techniques valuable in glaucoma diagnosisData from the ongoing European Optic Disc Assessment Trial (EODAT) indicated that imaging techniques could be valuable assets to ophthalmologists in the diagnosis of glaucoma, according to Nic Reus, MD, from the Glaucoma Service of The Rotterdam Eye Hospital, Rotterdam, The Netherlands. 

FP receptor instrumental in upregulation of matrix metalloproteinaseTopical latanoprost (Xalatan, Pfizer Ophthalmics) upregulates matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2, MMP-3, MMP-9, and FP receptor gene expression in the mouse sclera… 

Femtosecond laser-assisted procedure latest advance in endothelial keratoplastyRapid advances in technology and improved ablation algorithms for the femtosecond laser have enabled its use to dissect the donor corneal lamellae for Descemet's stripping automated endothelial keratoplasty (DSAEK), said Donald Tan, MD, professor of ophthalmology, National University of Singapore. 

Triple procedure preferred over staged approach for DSAEK and cataract removalWith proper technique, Descemet's stripping automated endothelial keratoplasty (DSAEK) with phacoemulsification is not any riskier than DSAEK alone, said Mark A. Terry, MD, director of cornea services, Devers Eye Institute, Portland, OR. 

Spectacle correction attains 20/25 in children with bilateral refractive amblyopiaTreatment of bilateral refractive amblyopia, primarily with only spectacle correction, improves binocular visual acuity in children aged 3 to less than 10 years, with most achieving 20/25 acuity or better within 1 year, reported David Wallace, MD, for the Pediatric Eye Disease Investigator Group. 

Persistent esoptropic amblyopia related to delay in referral, anisometropiaNewly identified risk factors that increase the risk of development of persistent esotropic amblyopia are delay in referral and anisometropia in children with infantile or accommodative esotropia, said Eileen Birch, PhD, from the Pediatric Eye Research Laboratory, Retina Foundation of the Southwest, and the University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas. 

Variables in models can provide invaluable insights to diseaseJayakrishna Ambati, MD defended animal models of age-related macular degeneration despite differences in eye structure and disease development between humans and other species often used in testing, such as primates, mice, and rabbits. 

Folic acid and B vitamins may reduce risk of AMD in womenLong-term daily supplementation with folic acid and vitamins B6 and B12 may reduce the risk of developing age-related macular degeneration (AMD) in women with established cardiovascular disease (CVD) or CVD risk factors, said William G. Christen, ScD, DO. 

Time is now for transforming health-care systemAmericans turning 50 today have half their lives in front of them, but without a transformation of our health-care system, their medical care and that of younger generations will not be what they have come to expect, suggested William D. Novelli, chief executive officer of the AARP, during a keynote session Sunday night. 

The ciliary muscle: the driving force of accommodationAccommodation is the result of changes in the optical power of the crystalline lens that results from change in the lens anterior and posterior surface curvatures and thickness. The ciliary muscle is the engine that drives the accommodative process, and the lens capsule and the lens are important components of accommodation, according to Adrian Glasser, MD. 

Ultra high-speed OCT provides minute structural details, potential applicationsUltra high-speed optical coherence tomography (OCT) offers the potential to follow minute changes in patients with various pathologies. Johannes de Boer, PhD, the Wellman Center of Photomedicine, Harvard Medical School, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, reviewed the principles of OCT and the status of ultra high-speed OCT. 

Topical cyclosporine treatment enhances outcomes of multifocal IOL implantationA three-month regimen of topical treatment with cyclosporine ophthalmic emulsion 0.05% (Restasis, Allergan) administered pre- and postoperatively significantly improves visual outcomes in cataract surgery patients with a multifocal IOL implanted, reported Eric D. Donnenfeld, MD. 

OCT evolution provides improving resolution, speed and clinical applicationsOptical coherence tomography (OCT) continues to evolve and improve, offering clinicians more detailed information on the status of patients' eyes. Joel Shuman, MD, a co-inventor of OCT, reviewed the technology and contrasted the first-generation technology with spectral domain technology. 

Second-harmonic signaling used to study corneal structure, functionSecond-harmonic signaling with the femtosecond laser (IntraLase, Advanced Medical Optics) can be used to probe corneal structure and function. In combination with laser-induced optical breakdown, it also can help create three-dimensional measures of elasticity as well as provide details on the biomechanical properties of the eye, according to James V. Jester, PhD. 

New analytic tools: backward compatibility enhances scanning laser tomographyStability of technology is important when dealing with patients who have a progressive disease, said Balwantray Chauhan, PhD, professor and director of research, Department of Ophthalmology, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia. 

Studies implicate photoreceptor mitochondria as initiator in uveitis-associated vision lossMitochondrial oxidative stress induced by translocation of inducible nitric oxide synthetase (iNOS) from the cytosol into the photoreceptor mitochondria appears to be a primary event leading to photoreceptor damage in experimental autoimmune uveitis (EAU), said Narsing A. Rao, MD. 

Opportunities to avert healthcare's 'perfect storm'The "perfect storm" in health care is on its way, according to Paul Lee, MD, JD, Duke University, Durham, NC, as he described areas where research and potential paradigm changes can contribute to meeting society's needs to enhance vision, maintain wellness, and prevent vision loss. 

 

Disclaimer:This information has been independently developed and provided by the editors of Ophthalmology Times Europe.

The sponsors do not endorse and are not responsible for the accuracy of the content or for practices or standards of non-sponsor sources.

These articles may discuss regimens that have not been approved by the appropriate regulatory bodies. For full prescribing information including indications, contraindications, warnings, precautions, and adverse experiences please see the appropriate manufacturer's product circular.